MBBS 2nd Year Pathology Important Questions

MBBS 2nd Year Pathology Important Questions

Second professional is long and exams would feel tough as the syllabus is MIGHTY, but everything would be good at the end. Also, do not forget to enjoy. The memories you would make in Second year are the things you are going to cherish forever.

Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection can be very well applied to Medical stream as the one who is fittest to cope up with such enormous amount of inhumane pressures survive. It was not to scare you but to make you alert for what’s coming.

Second year of MBBS is the year you spend in college when you have settled well at the new place with the new people but not able to settle with the course pressure as it just gets amplified as compared to the previous year.

Mistakes to avoid in MBBS Second year :

First of all, Second professional is not honeymoon period. Its better you understand this early.

  1. Wrong selection of books: Don’t be hasty while buying the book. Wait for a week or more, consult with other students and especially seniors and try to select and follow Standard books only. Below in the article you will find about the books to follow. Keep this in mind that whichever book you buy and start reading and highlighting, you will have to use the same in future too.
  2. Not touching the books in initial months: Before the curriculum changed and second year had 3 semesters, first semester was called as ‘Honeymoon semester.’ Students usually didn’t dare touch books for a whole semester and used to regret in later months. Though the new curriculum has shortened the duration by 1 semester, student are going to avoid studying and that’s probably not good.
  3. PG Preperations: Many students start PG Preparation and get so serious that they prioritize it above their MBBS Second year course. Though its recommended to start PG preparation from this time only but with maintaining balance with second year course being the first priority.
  4. Clinical postings: I was one of those fools who was too irregular in attending clinical postings. You can be a doctor anyway but attending postings are of utmost importance if you want to be a Good Doctor. You need to run behind seniors and actively participate in postings because teachers wont be going to teach you much actively considering you as a novice.
  5. For the nerds especially, don’t stay stuck inside the books. Do make memories as the future is going to be more harsh and these are the memories you are going to cherish in the coming future.

How to study Pathology?

Pathology is the king of 2nd professional subjects. Not denying this fact, Pathology is the base for your future. Whatever you want to pursue, knowledge of pathology is a must! Especially for studying medicine, knowledge of Pathology with Physiology is of utmost importance.

  • Make notes from 2–3 books and make your own answers.
  • Make your own flowcharts and draw as many as possible in your theory exams.
  • Do solve previous year University papers to prepare well for your professional exams.
  • Most Important : Stay in touch with your Seniors & get important topics marked in your textbook to be safe from Pre exam Hassle.
  • Follow standard books if you can.
  • Take help of Video Lectures. There are a bunch of good ones available now.
  • Do read first 7 chapters of Robbin’s Pathology.
  • Integrate with Pharmacology and Physiology.
  • Remember, if you want to be a good doctor and ace in Medicine in Final year, you need to start studying pathology from the start of semester and at least revise it one more time.

Credit : Medstribune

CELLULAR INJURY

Long Questions
  1. Necrosis , types and examples, fate of necrosed area, difference between apoptosis and necrosis
  2. Define apoptosis, what are the cause of apoptosis. Write about the biochemical features and mechanisms of apoptosis. Add a note on deregulated apoptosis
  3. Types of degeneration, pathology of organ affected by fatty changes, add a note on fat stains
Short Questions
  1. Write about cell injury and write briefly about hyperplasia with suitable examples
  2. Cellular swelling
  3. Necrosis
  4. Gangrenous necrosis
  5. Fat necrosis
  6. Tissue necrosis- Morphological patterns
  7. Caseous necrosis
  8. Definition and characteristic of types of necrosis
  9. Free radical cell injury
  10. Morphological changes in apoptosis
  11. Mechanism of apoptosis
  12. Classify pigments and write about lipofuscins
  13. Hemosiderin deposits in the diseases
  14. Difference between the dysplastic and metastatic calcification
  15. Write about dystrophic and metastatic calcifications
  16. Pathological calcification
  17. Metastatic calcification
  18. Define hyperplasia and give two examples
  19. Define atrophy. Give two examples to physiological atrophy
  20. Mention 4 nuclear changes in necrosis
  21. Types of necrosis with examples
  22. Enumerate four examples for metastatic calcification
  23. Enlist two common stains used to demonstrate fat in tissues

INFLAMMATION

Long Questions
  1. Define Inflammation. Enumerate the cellular events in acute inflammation.
  2. Discuss in detail the mechanism of Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis. Enlist the common defects in Leukocyte functions
  3. Define inflammation, write in detail about the vascular and cellular changes in inflammation
  4. Chemical mediators of acute inflammation and their actions
Short Questions
  1. Vascular Changes in acute inflammation
  2. Leucocyte endothelium adhesion molecules
  3. Chemotaxis
  4. Chemical mediators of inflammatiom
  5. Role of arachidonic metabolites in inflammation
  6. Chemokines
  7. Leukotrienes
  8. Cytokines
  9. Write about the outcomes of acute inflammation
  10. Different types of giant cells with morphology and examples
  11. Granulomatous inflammation
  12. Granuloma
  13. Leukemoid reaction
  14. Two difference between exudate and transudate
  15. Acute phase reactants
  16. Name four cell derived mediators of inflammation
  17. Four systemic effects of inflammation
  18. Different types of giant cells
  19. Two examples of acute phase proteins
  20. Mast cells

TISSUE RENEWAL AND REPAIR

Long Questions
  1. Define repair, process of repair, factors influencing repair
  2. Wound healing second intention, difference between the first and second intention, factor influencing it
Short Questions
  1. Stem cells in tissue homeostasis
  2. Factors influencing wound healing
  3. Healing by second intention
  4. Factors influencing wound healing
  5. Systemic factors that influence wound healing
  6. Types of wound healing
  7. Role of vitamin C in wound healing
  8. Keloid

HEMODYNAMIC DISORDER

Long Questions
  1. Edema, etiopathogenesis of generalized edema, clinical significance of cerebral and pulmonary edema
  2. Define thrombosis, write in detail about the pathogenesis, causes, morphology and fate of thrombus
  3. Define shock, discuss in detail the pathogenesis of septic shock, describe the morphology of kidneys and lungs affected by shock
  4. Define, classify , pathogenicity & morphology of shock
  5. Define and classify shock. Discuss in detail about septic shock
Short Questions
  1. Edema pathogenesis
  2. Cardiac edema
  3. Thrombogenesis
  4. Virchow’s triad
  5. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
  6. Difference between thrombus and blood clot
  7. Embolism
  8. Thromboembolism
  9. Types of embolism, write on caissons disease
  10. Fat embolism
  11. Air embolism
  12. Gangrene
  13. Morphology of infarction
  14. Amniotic fluid embolism
  15. Gross and microscopic feature of infarct
  16. Difference between the dry and wet gangrene
  17. Gangrene – pathogenesis
  18. Pathogenesis of shock
  19. Septic shock
  20. Define hyperemia and congestion
  21. Heart failure cells
  22. Anticoagulants
  23. Lines of zahn
  24. State four difference between dry and wet gangrene
  25. Name the stages of shock
  26. Gamma gandy bodies
  27. Enlist four important sequelae for Thrombosis

GENETIC DISORDERS

Short Questions
  1. Mention four X-linked recessive disorders
  2. X linked diseases
  3. Hypercholesterolemia
  4. Niemann pick disease
  5. Gaucher’s disease
  6. Glycogen storage disorders
  7. Sex chromatin
  8. Down syndrome
  9. Trisomy 21
  10. Klinefelter’s syndrome
  11. Turner’s syndrome
  12. Give two examples of autosomal recessive disorders
  13. Mention 4 X-linked recessive disorders
  14. Gaucher’s cell
  15. Special stain to diagnose Gaucher’s disease
  16. Enumerate 4 types of chromosomal rearrangements
  17. Clinical features of trisomy 21
  18. Trisomy 18
  19. Name two trisomy syndromes
  20. FISH
  21. Enumerate two common cytogenetic disorders involving Sex Chromosomes

DISEASES OF IMMUNITY

Long Questions
  1. Define auto, iso, allo , xenografts, factors influencing allograft rejection, types and mechanism of allograft rejection
  2. Classify primary immunodeficiency syndrome, details about AIDS
Short Questions
  1. Classify amyloidosis, details about it
  2. Type II hypersensitivity
  3. Opportunistic lung infections in AIDS
  4. Type I hypersensitivity
  5. Type III hypersensitivity reaction
  6. Mechanism of autoimmunity
  7. LE phenomenon
  8. Morphology of renal changes in SLE
  9. Amyloidosis
  10. Pathology of spleen in amyloidosis
  11. NK cells
  12. HLA
  13. Anaphylactic reaction
  14. Antibody mediated hypersensitivity
  15. Immune complex mediated hypersensitivity
  16. Cell mediated hypersensitivity
  17. Arthus reaction
  18. Antinuclear antibodies
  19. Transplant rejection
  20. Graft versus host disease
  21. AIDS
  22. Amyloid stains
  23. Primary amyloidosis
  24. Sago spleen
  25. Two neoplasm seen in AIDS
  26. Mention 4 special stains for amyloid
  27. Chronic granulomatous disease
  28. Hyper IgM syndrome
  29. Four opportunistic infections in HIV. Mention two sites of biopsy for amyloidosis
  30. Enumerate four common organs involved in Amyloidosis

NEOPLASIA

Long Questions
  1. Classify neoplasia, difference between benign and malignant tumor, mode of spread of malignant tumor
  2. Metastasis, different pathway of spread , details about anyone
  3. Write in detail about carcinogenesis physical, chemical and biological and also molecular basis of carcinogenesis
  4. Define neoplasia, discuss in detail the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of radiation oncogenesis
  5. Mention oncogenic viruses. Describe oncogenesis by HPV
Short Questions
  1. Tumor markers
  2. Teratoma
  3. Growth factors
  4. Chemical carcinogen
  5. Hamartoma
  6. Carcinoma in situ
  7. Paraneoplastic syndrome
  8. FNAC
  9. Laboratory diagnosis of cancer
  10. Difference between benign and malignant tumors
  11. Metaplasia
  12. Dysplasia
  13. Tumor metastasis
  14. Tumor suppressor genes
  15. Oncogenic RNA virus
  16. Grading and staging of tumor
  17. Automatic tissue processor
  18. Differentiation and anaplasia
  19. Trans coelomic spread of neoplasm
  20. Molecular basis of cancer
  21. P53
  22. Tumor antigens
  23. EBV
  24. Lab diagnosis of neoplasm
  25. Exfoliative cytology
  26. Liquid base cytology
  27. Define metaplasia and give 2 examples
  28. Warburg effect
  29. Two tumor suppressor genes
  30. Name four virus implicated in carcinogenesis

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Long Questions
  1. Describe the pathogenesis, morphology and clinical features of TB
  2. Define Gangrene , types, details about gas gangrene
Short Questions
  1. Viral hemorrhagic fevers
  2. Histological differences between TB leprosy and Lepromatous leprosy
  3. Morphology and evolution of tubercle
  4. Morphology of primary TB
  5. Primary complex
  6. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis
  7. Ghon’s complex
  8. Primary Atypical pneumonia
  9. Miliary TB
  10. Lepromatous leprosy
  11. Tertiary syphilis
  12. Hydatid cyst
  13. Mycetoma
  14. Fungal granuloma
  15. Rhinosporidosis
  16. Tertiary syphilis
  17. Hematocrit in dengue fever
  18. Actinomycosis
  19. Cysticercosis
  20. Ghon’s foci
  21. Gross appearance of mycetoma foot
  22. Black water fever
  23. Microscopic appearance of lepromatous leprosy
  24. Types of leprosy

NUTRITION AND ENVIRONMENT

Short Questions
  1. PEM
  2. Kwashiorkor
  3. Vitamin A deficiency
  4. Rickets
  5. Vit D deficiency
  6. Obesity
  7. Lead poisoning
  8. Vitamin C deficiency
  9. Give two examples for trace elements and their deficiency states
  10. Mention two causes for Basophilic Stippling
  11. Gross skeletal changes in rickets

INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

Short Questions
  1. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  2. Hemolytic diseases of newborn
  3. Erythroblastosis fetalis
  4. Hemolytic disease of Newborn
  5. Cystic Firbrosis
  6. Neuroblastoma
  7. Nephroblastoma
  8. Wilm’s tumor
  9. Rh Factor
  10. Kernicterus
  11. Mention any 4 childhood malignancies

RBC AND BLEEDING DISORDERS

Long Questions
  1. Classify hemolytic anemia, compare etiopathogenesis and lab findings of Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia
  2. Classify Hemolytic anemia, write in detail about the pathogenesis, Blood picture and clinical features of Beta Thalassemia Major
  3. How will you interpret bone marrow, bone marrow findings of megaloblastic anemia
  4. Classify anemia, details about iron deficiency anemia
  5. Classify thrombocytopenia, etiopathogenesis, details about idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  6. Define Thrombocytopenia? Classify causes of thrombocytopenia? Discuss the various test in evaluating bleeding disorders?
Short Questions
  1. Reticulocyte
  2. Evidences of haemolytic anemia
  3. PCV estimation and its significance
  4. Hematocrit
  5. G6PD deficiency anemia
  6. Sickle cell disease
  7. Pathogenesis of sickle cell disease
  8. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow changes in Vitamin B12 deficiency (Megaloblastic anemia ) (6)
  9. Coomb’s test
  10. Bone marrow changes in microcytic anemia
  11. Microcytic hypochromic anemia
  12. Etiology and morphology of bone marrow in Aplastic Anemia
  13. Pancytopenia in peripheral smear
  14. Aplastic anemia
  15. Fanconi’s anemia
  16. Polycythemia Vera
  17. Prothrombin time
  18. Bleeding time
  19. Thrombocytopenia
  20. Chronic ITP
  21. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  22. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  23. Glanzmann’s disease
  24. Coagulation disorders
  25. Mention Important investigations necessary for diagnosis of Hemophilia
  26. hemophilia A
  27. Von Willebrand’s disease
  28. Christmas disease
  29. DIC
  30. Pathogenesis of DIC
  31. DIC lab diagnosis
  32. Transfusion reaction
  33. Complications of blood transfusion
  34. Sideroblastic anemia
  35. Osmotic fragility test
  36. Indication of bone marrow aspiration
  37. Laboratory Investigations done for diagnosis of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia
  38. What are red cell indices ?
  39. MCV
  40. Mention 4 applications of reticulocyte count
  41. Heinz Bodies
  42. Reticulocyte
  43. Howell-jolly body
  44. Tests for Sickling
  45. Coomb’s test
  46. Megaloblast
  47. Mention two important marrow changes in B12 deficiency
  48. Blood picture in Megaloblastic anemia
  49. Give 4 causes for IDA
  50. Mention two causes of pancytopenia
  51. Prothrombin time
  52. Mention the causes of Thrombocytopenia
  53. Bernard Soulier syndrome
  54. Hemophilia
  55. What is cross matching?
  56. What is Bombay Blood group?
  57. Sea blue histiocytes
  58. Mention 4 indications of Bone marrow aspiration
  59. Cross matching
  60. Blood components prepared in a blood bank

WBC DISORDERS

Long Questions
  1. Classify leukemia, details about ALL
  2. Classify Hodgkin’s disease and explain it
  3. Classify lymphoma, details about Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  4. Define and classify leukaemia. Describe the blood and bone marrow findings in
  5. Acute myeloid leukaemia
  6. Classify leukemia , bone marrow and peripheral blood smear findings of CML
Short Questions
  1. Morphological disorder of leucocytes
  2. Agranulocytosis
  3. Eosinophilia
  4. Classify acute leukemia
  5. Classification of NHL
  6. Cytochemistry of acute leukemia
  7. Burkitt lymphoma
  8. Lab diagnosis multiple myeloma
  9. Lab investigation of plasma cell myeloma
  10. Bence Jones proteins
  11. Peripheral smear and Bone marrow findings in Multiple myeloma
  12. Rye’s classification and its value
  13. Hodgkins Lymphoma
  14. Reed-Sternberg Giant Cells
  15. Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma
  16. Classify Hodgkin lymphoma
  17. Classify AML
  18. Chloroma
  19. Myelodysplastic syndrome
  20. Blood pictures on CML
  21. Myelofibrosis
  22. Primary myelofibrosis
  23. Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase
  24. Describe the peripheral smear and bone marrow appearance in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia with suitable diagrams
  25. Draw megaloblast, Maxicanhat cell, Pessary cell, Macropolycyte
  26. Agranulocytosis
  27. Two characteristic difference between myeloblasts and lymphoblasts
  28. Russell bodies
  29. Name four monoclonal gammopathies
  30. Mention two pathogenic features of Hairy cell leukemia
  31. 4 difference between Hodgkin’s and non-hodgkin’s lymphoma
  32. Reed sternberg cell and its variants
  33. Chloroma
  34. Auer rods
  35. Psuedopelger Huet anomaly
  36. Philadelphia chromosome
  37. Mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia
  38. Tear drop cells
Clinical Case Scenario
  1. 40 years male H/o chronic fatigue, weight loss since 6 months. O/E pallor, marked splenomegaly+, laboratory report shows Hb 10 GM%, TC 215000/CMM. Platelets 4 lacks/mm. Answer the following: a) What is your diagnosis? b) What is common genetic abnormality? c) Blood and Bone Marrow findings to confirm your diagnosis? d) Prognosis of the condition?
  2. A 70 year old women admitted with worsening anemia and pathological fracture of the Humerus had an ESR of 120mm in 1 hour. Her peripheral smear showed increased rouleaux formation. X-ray of skull showed multiple punched out osteolytic lesions. a) What is the most probable diagnosis? Write briefly on the etiopathogenesis of this disease. b) Describe the Bone Marrow Changes in this disease. c) Enumerate the common laboratory investigations for this disease. d. Enlist the complications of this disease.
  3. 40 yrs female c/o loss of weight, huge splenomegaly with peripheral blood white blood cell count of more than 1 lakh cells/cc a) What is the probable diagnosis? b) What are the characteristic peripheral smear findings? c) What is the course of the disease? d) What is the chromosomal abnormality involved?
  4. 60 yrs male presented with normocytic normochromic anaemia, pathological fracture femur and proteinuria. X ray skull revealed punched out lesions in the calvarium and peripheral smear studied show rouleaux formation. a) What is your probable diagnosis. b) Discuss in detail the molecular pathogenesis, morphology and clinical features of above said disorder.
  5. 23 yrs female presented with oral ulcers, malar rash photosensitivity and non erosive arthritis involving both knees. Laboratory investigations show persistent proteinuria and leucopenia. What is your probable diagnosis.
  6. 40 yr old male presented with h/o fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. Patient had temperature of 103 degrees F. Weak rapid pulse, hypotension, tachypnea, cold, clammy, cyanotic skin. Blood culture gram negative bacterial infection positive. a) What is your diagnosis? b) Explain the pathogenesis and morphology.

BLOOD VESSELS

Long Questions
  1. Atheroma , risk factors for atherosclerosis , role of lipid and endothelial injury , and its pathogenesis
  2. Define atherosclerosis. Discuss in detail the risk factors, pathogenesis, morphology and complications
  3. A 12 year boy weighing 70 kgs, doesn’t play any outdoor games and is always in front of his play station with lot of snacks besides him. What is he having? What are the methods to assess it? b) What is the etiopathogenesis? Enumerate the complications?
Short Questions
  1. Pathogenesis of essential hypertension
  2. Atherosclerosis
  3. Atheromatous plaque
  4. Consequences of atherosclerotic disease
  5. Aneurysm
  6. Dissecting aneurysm
  7. Buerger’s disease (TAO)
  8. Kaposi sarcoma
  9. Pathology of Cardiomyopathy
  10. Monckeberg’s medial sclerosis
  11. Atheromatous plaque
  12. Takayasu arteritis
  13. Raynaud phenomenon
  14. Mention four common risk factors for Atherosclerosis
  15. Benign tumors of blood vessels

HEART

Short Questions
  1. MI (2)
  2. Define Rheumatic fever, details about RHD
  3. Infective endocarditis / bacterial endocarditis
  4. Fallot’s tetrology
  5. Morphology of infarct
  6. Enzymes in MI
  7. Lab investigations of Acute myocardial infarction
  8. Complications of myocardial infarction
  9. Hypertensive heart disease
  10. Rheumatic cardiac lesion
  11. Cardiac lesions in RHD
  12. Rheumatic fever
  13. Aschoff’s bodies
  14. Infective endocarditis
  15. Vegetations of heart
  16. Cardiomyopathy
  17. Oslers node
  18. Libman-sacks endocarditis
  19. Enlist four causes of acute myocarditis
  20. Mention the 3 types of cardiomyopathy
  21. Types of acute pericarditis
  22. Morphology of cardiac myxoma

LUNG

Long Questions
  1. Define and classify emphysema, details about panacinar emphysema
  2. Bronchial asthma
  3. Lobar pneumonia
  4. Classify bronchogenic carcinoma, details about small cell carcinoma
Short Questions
  1. ARDS
  2. Emphysema
  3. Pathogenesis of bronchial asthma
  4. Bronchiectasis
  5. Pathology of bronchial asthma
  6. Pneumoconiosis
  7. Silicosis
  8. Asbestosis
  9. Sarcoidosis
  10. Good Pasteur’s syndrome
  11. Primary Atypical pneumonia
  12. Lobar pneumonia
  13. Viral pneumonia
  14. Etiopathology of CA lung
  15. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma
  16. Oat cell carcinoma
  17. Small cell carcinoma lung
  18. Carcinoid tumors of lung
  19. Carcinoid syndrome
  20. Mesothelioma
  21. Cor pulmonale
  22. Mention the four types of Emphysema
  23. Pan-acinar emphysema
  24. Reid index
  25. Byssinosis
  26. Ferruginous bodies
  27. Asteroid bodies.
  28. Causes of hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
  29. Stages of lobar pneumonia
  30. Bronchopneumonia

HEAD AND NECK

Short Questions
  1. Classify tumors of salivary glands , details about salivary adenomas
  2. Pre cancerous lesions
  3. Ameloblastoma
  4. Thyroglossal cyst
  5. Paraganglioma
  6. Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland
  7. Warthin tumor
  8. Mixed salivary gland tumors
  9. List four etiological factors associated with squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity
  10. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  11. 2 malignant tumors of salivary gland
  12. Mention four common tumors of salivary gland

GIT

Long Questions
  1. Define peptic ulcer, details about chronic gastric ulcer
  2. Ulcerative lesions of small and large intestine
  3. IBD, crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
Short Questions
  1. Congenital megacolon
  2. Pathology, morphology and clinical features of Hirschsprung’s disease
  3. Barret’s esophagus
  4. H.pylori gastritis
  5. Etiopathology of duodenal ulcer
  6. Peptic ulcer disease
  7. Morphology of chronic gastric ulcer
  8. Zollinger Ellison syndrome
  9. Etiology of gastric cancer
  10. Coeliac sprue
  11. Gross and microscopic appearance of amoebic dysentery colon
  12. IBD
  13. Crohns disease / regional ileitis
  14. Ulcerative colitis
  15. Neoplastic polyps of large intestine
  16. Morphology of two types of Hiatus hernia
  17. Chronic gastritis
  18. Helicobacter pylori
  19. Sites of peptic ulcer disease
  20. Menetrie’s disease
  21. Linitis plastica
  22. Gross difference between benign and malignant ulcers of stomach
  23. Mention two microscopic intestinal changes in malabsorption syndrome
  24. Typhoid ulcer
  25. Morphologic hall mark of Whipple disease
  26. Two difference between chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  27. Peutz-Jaghers syndrome
  28. Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome
  29. Mutations in colonic carcinoma
  30. Microscopic picture of acute appendicitis

LIVER AND PANCREAS

Long Questions
  1. Classify cirrhosis details about portal cirrhosis
  2. Classify cirrhosis of liver, details about alcoholic cirrhosis / any one of the most common type
  3. Discuss the etiopathogenesis of viral hepatitis and in detail about serological evaluation
  4. Tumours of liver – Classification, Etiopathogenesis, prognosis
Short Questions
  1. Cirrhosis of liver
  2. Etioclassification of liver cirrhosis
  3. Investigation of viral hepatitis
  4. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis
  5. Hepatitis B
  6. Chronic active viral hepatitis
  7. Chronic persistent hepatitis
  8. Chronic acute hepatitis
  9. Morphology of alcoholic liver disease
  10. Lennec’s cirrhosis – morphology
  11. Hemochromatosis
  12. Biliary cirrhosis
  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma
  14. Etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma
  15. Gall stones
  16. Cholelithiasis
  17. Cholangiocarcinoma
  18. Aetiology and Pathology of Acute Pancreatitis
  19. Chronic calcific pancreatitis
  20. Fatty changes in liver
  21. Chronic pancreatitis
  22. Ground glass hepatocytes
  23. Morphology of amoebic liver abscess
  24. Morphology of alcoholic liver disease
  25. Mallory bodies
  26. Name four causes of fatty liver
  27. Hemochromatosis
  28. Wilson’s disease
  29. Mention 2 conditions of hereditary unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
  30. CVC liver
  31. Etiological factors of hepatocellular carcinoma
  32. Risk factors of gall stones
  33. Four pathological effects of gall stones
  34. Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis

KIDNEY

Long Questions
  1. Classify acute glomerular nephritis, details about acute post streptococcal glomerulo nephritis
  2. Nephritic syndrome
  3. Define nephritic syndrome. Enlist the causes of nephritic syndrome. Discuss in detail the pathogenesis and morphology in MPGN (Membrano Proliferative Glomerulo Nephritis)
  4. Chronic pyelonephritis
Short Questions
  1. Immune complex nephritis
  2. Urinary findings of acute glomerulonephritis
  3. Rapid Progressive glomerulonephritis
  4. Crescentic glomerulonephritis
  5. Nephrotic syndrome
  6. Minimal change nephropathy
  7. Contracted granular kidney
  8. Lupus nephritis
  9. Acute tubular necrosis
  10. Acute pyelonephritis
  11. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis
  12. Nephrosclerosis
  13. Cystic lesions in kidney
  14. Polycystic kidney disease
  15. Renal stones
  16. Hypernephroma
  17. Pathology of carcinoma kidney
  18. Renal cell carcinoma
  19. Clear cell carcinoma – kidney
  20. Urinary casts
  21. Transitional cell carcinoma bladder
  22. Henoch Schonlein purpura
  23. Mention two difference between nephrotic syndrome and nephritic syndrome
  24. Mention the serological finding in post infectious glomerulonephritis
  25. Wire loop lesion
  26. Four causes of nephrotic syndrome
  27. Two causes of granular contracted kidneys
  28. Causes of acute tubular necrosis
  29. Complications of acute pyelonephritis
  30. Mention four microscopic features of chronic pyelonephritis
  31. Cystic renal dysplasia
  32. Enumerate the four main types of renal calculi
  33. Enumerate four different types of renal stones
  34. Mention Two sides of oncocytomas
  35. Grading of urothelial malignancy

MALE GENITAL SYSTEM

Short Questions
  1. Bowens disease of skin
  2. Cryptorchidism
  3. Seminoma
  4. Yolk sac tumor
  5. Teratoma
  6. Gross and microscopic picture of seminoma testis’
  7. BPH
  8. Grading and staging of prostatic adenocarcinoma
  9. Condyloma acuminata
  10. Cryptorchidism
  11. Spermatocytic seminoma
  12. Difference between classic and spermatocytic seminomas
  13. Alpha feto protein
  14. Pathology of Seminoma Testis

FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM

Long Questions
  1. Cervical cancer
  2. Classify ovarian neoplasms. Discuss in detail about surface epithelial tumours
  3. Classify ovarian neoplasm. Discuss in detail the molecular pathogenesis and morphology of serous tumours.
  4. Mucinous cystadenoma of ovary
  5. Classify ovarian tumor, details about germ cell ovarian tumor
Short Questions
  1. CIN
  2. Cervical carcinoma etiopathology
  3. Etiology of carcinoma cervix
  4. Endometriosis
  5. Malignant tumours of endometrium. Write a note about malignant mixed mullerian tumour
  6. Uterus leiomyomas
  7. Surface epithelial tumours of ovary
  8. Brenner tumour
  9. Benign cystic teratoma ovary
  10. Dysgerminoma
  11. Granulosa cell tumor ovary
  12. Krukenberg tumour
  13. Hydatiform mole / vesicular mole
  14. CIN
  15. Four sites of endometriosis
  16. Adenomyosis
  17. Endometriosis
  18. Leiomyoma – Microscopic features
  19. Name the germ cell tumours of the ovary
  20. Gross appearance of mature cystic teratoma
  21. Dermoid cyst of ovary
  22. Mention 4 germ cell tumours
  23. Enumerate germ cell tumours of ovary
  24. Mention 2 histological features of Dysgerminoma
  25. Schiller Dual bodies
  26. Call Exner bodies
  27. Classification of gestational trophoblastic disease
  28. Mention sites of choriocarcinoma
  29. Struma ovarii

BREAST

Long Questions
  1. Breast cancer
  2. Classify CA breast, details about pagets disease of breast
Short Questions
  1. Fibrocystic disease of breast
  2. Gynecomastia
  3. Etiology of CA breast
  4. Risk factors and types of carcinoma breast
  5. Paget disease of breast
  6. Prognosis and predictive factors of breast cancer
  7. Mention the stromal tumors of breast
  8. Cystosarcoma phyllodes
  9. Phyllodes tumor breast
  10. Fibroadenoma of breastPagets disease of breast
  11. Gynecomastia
  12. Comedo carcinoma breast
  13. Microscopic features of phyllodes tumour

ENDOCRINE

Long Questions
  1. Classify thyroid neoplasms. Discuss in detail about pathogenesis of malignant thyroid neoplasms. Add a note on morphology of papillary carcinoma of thyroid.
  2. Describe etiopathogenesis of diabetes. What are the complications
Short Questions
  1. Adamantinoma jaw
  2. Cretinism
  3. Thyroiditis
  4. Immune thyroiditis
  5. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  6. Grave’s disease
  7. Multi nodular goiter
  8. Nodular goiter
  9. Papillary carcinoma thyroid
  10. Medullary carcinoma thyroid
  11. Hyperparathyroidism
  12. Write the pathogenesis and complications of DM
  13. Lab diagnosis DM
  14. Pancreatic changes in DM
  15. IDDM
  16. Renal changes in DM
  17. Diabetic nephropathy
  18. Morphology of kidney in Diabetic nephropathy
  19. Cushing syndrome
  20. Pheochromocytoma
  21. MEN syndrome
  22. Classify thyroiditis
  23. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  24. Hurthle cell
  25. Colloid goiter
  26. Morphologic features of papillary carcinoma thyroid
  27. Psammoma bodies]
  28. Enlist 4 microscopic features in papillary carcinoma of thyroid
  29. Microscopy of papillary carcinoma thyroid
  30. Write briefly on types of hyperparathyroidism
  31. Diabetic Macrovascular disease
  32. Enumerate four complications of diabetes mellitus
  33. Microalbuminuria
  34. Mention 4 features of Addison’s disease
  35. Pheochromocytoma

SKIN

Long Questions
  1. Exfoliative cytology
  2. Precancerous lesion skin
  3. Intradermal naevus
  4. Malignant melanoma
  5. Basal cell carcinoma
  6. Microscopic features of basal cell carcinoma
  7. Blue nevus
  8. Mention four pre malignant lesions
  9. Grading of squamous carcinoma
  10. Enlist two characteristic features of mycosis fungoides
  11. Enumerate two common Premalignant Lesions of Malignant Melanoma

BONE SOFT TISSUES

Long Questions
  1. Define repair, repair of fracture of bone, factor influencing healing
  2. Classify tumor bone, details about osteogenic tumor
  3. Osteosclerosis
  4. Classify Tumors of Bone. Discuss in detail the Etiopathogenesis and Pathology of
  5. Osteogenic Sarcoma. Add a note on the Radiological Findings in Osteosarcoma
Short Questions
  1. Paget disease of bone
  2. Healing of simple bone fractures
  3. Chronic osteomyelitis
  4. Osteomyelitis
  5. Pyogenic osteomyelitis
  6. TB osteomyelitis
  7. Osteogenic sarcoma pathology
  8. Chondroblastoma
  9. Cartilage forming bone tumours
  10. Osteochondroma
  11. Osteoclastoma
  12. Giant cell tumor bone
  13. Ewing’s sarcoma
  14. Aneurysmal bone cyst
  15. Pannus
  16. GOUT
  17. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  18. Mitochondrial inheritance
Short Questions
  1. Mention 2 major causes of osteonecrosis
  2. Pott’s spine
  3. Radiologic appearance of osteosarcoma
  4. Osteogenic sarcoma
  5. Chondroblastoma
  6. Cartilage forming bone tumours
  7. Histological features of giant cell tumors of bone
  8. Gout
  9. Tophi
  10. Liposarcoma
  11. Rhabdomyosarcoma
  12. Acoustic schwannoma
  13. Neurofibromatosis gene

CNS

Long Questions
  1. Classify tumor CNS, details about gliomas
Short Questions
  1. Examination of CSF
  2. TB meningitis
  3. CSF in TB meningitis / pyogenic meningitis
  4. Prion disease
  5. Brain tumors classification
  6. Astrocytoma
  7. Pilocytic astrocytoma
  8. Glioblastoma
  9. Glioblastoma multiforme
  10. Medulloblastoma
  11. Meningioma
  12. Morphology of meningiomas
  13. Retinoblastoma
  14. CSF in tuberculous meningitis
  15. Berry’s aneurisms
  16. CSF changes in pyogenic meningitis
  17. Tuberculosis meningitis
  18. Negri bodies
  19. Prions
  20. Creutzfeldt Jakob disease
  21. Mention four tumors of CNS
  22. Pilocytic astrocytoma
  23. Glioblastoma multiforme
  24. Features of diabetic retinopathy
  25. Flexner Wintersteiner rosettes and fleurettes
Clinical Scenario
  1. 40 year female presents with post coital bleeding and foul smelling discharge per vagina. She lost 15% wt in 2 months, with loss of appetite. a) What is your diagnosis ? b) What etiopathogenesis of this condition? c) What are the morphological features?
  2. A 60 year old postmenopausal anorexic, cachectic woman has an ulcerated and friable cervix that bleeds on touch. These features were accompanied by foul smelling vaginal discharge. a) What is your diagnosis? b) Discuss in detail the aetiopathogenesis and morphological features of your diagnosis. c) Enlist the investigations that will enable diagnosis
  3. 20 years female H/o pain, swelling, tenderness over lower and of right femur since 3 months. Suddenly developed breathlessness during her treatment and died, clinical autopsy conducted. Answer the following: a) What is your diagnosis? b) Mention two investigations to arrive at diagnosis? c) Aetio pathogenesis of the lesion? d) Gross and Microscopic picture of the lesion? e) Mention two autopsy confirmed lesions leading to death?
  4. A 35 years, old man was admitted with history of painless cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. He had history of loss of weight, fever and night sweating and was found to have cutaneous anergy. No hepatosplenomegaly. a) What is your most probable diagnosis? b) Give the classification of the condition. c) Describe the morphology of any two types.
  5. A 50 years old man collapses suddenly while climbing the stairs with severe chest pain and profuse sweating. a) What is your clinical diagnosis? b) Discuss the aetiopathogenesis of the condition. c) What are the complications that may follow the condition?
  6. A 12 year old boy presented with fever, oliguria and high coloured urine. He had sore throat three weeks back. i) What is your probable diagnosis? ii) Describe the etiopathogenesis of the condition iii) What are the relevant investigations?
  7. A 50 year old man with complains of severe chest pain and sweating. a) What is the most possible diagnosis for this patient? b) Enlist the risk factors and discuss in detail the etiopathogenesis and complications of this disease. c) Enlist the biochemical tests and their role in diagnosis of this disease.
  8. Thirteen year old female child had massive edema with puffiness of face with decreased urine output. a. What is the most probable diagnosis ? b. What can be the most probable renal pathology in this child ? c. Write in detail about minimal change disease.
  9. 44 year old nulliparous women presented with hard, fixed non tender mass of about 6x4x4 cm in the upper outer quadrant of right breast with axillary lymphadenopathy. a) What is your probably diagnosis. b) Discuss in detail the prognostic & predictive factors of your diagnosis.
  10. 8 Yr Old boy with old scar of scabies skin lesion, with history of Haematuria, Oliguria and Puffiness of face. a) What is your probable diagnosis. b) Etiopathogeneisis and laboratory investigations.
  11. 50 Yr old Male with painless firm Testicular swelling, with loss of testicular sensation. a) What is your probable Diagnosis. b) Discuss classification and Etiopathogenesis.
  12. 47 yrs old male presented with acute onset of dyspnea, profuse sweating and chest pain radiating to the left shoulder. Lab investigation revealed elevated troponin – T. What is your diagnosis, pathogenesis and morphology of the condition?
  13. A sixty year old male presented with anaemia, loss of weight, persistent abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting. Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy done. a) What is the probable diagnosis? b) Discuss the etiopathogenesis and morphology of the disease.
  14. 65/M presented with bleeding PR. Colonoscopy revealed a hard mass in rectosigmoid. What is your diagnosis?
  15. 50 years / Male admitted in emergency care with chest pain, profuse sweating and Rapid pulse. What is your diagnosis? Describe the Etiopathogenesis, Morphology and Complications of the above mentioned disease.
  16. A 3yrs old child was hospitalized for the complaints of fever and passing smoky urine. The child had recovered from sore throat a week ago. What is your diagnosis? Describe the etiopathogenesis, morphology and laboratory findings of this condition.
  17. 75 year male presented with dyspnea and sweating of sudden onset. He is a known hypertensive and diabetic for 15 years. On examination he has weak pulse. What is the diagnosis? Write about pathogenesis of the above disorder. Write in detail about the morphological changes that occur.
  18. 55 year old post menopausal women presented with hard lump 6 x 6 cm in upper outer quadrant of left breast. FNA – revealed cluster of pleomorphic cells. a) What is your clinical diagnosis? Discuss the etiopathogenesis, molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis of the disease. Discuss about prognostic and predictive factors of the disease.
  19. A 50 year old male presents with cough, dyspnoea, and intermittent haemoptysis for two months along with loss of weight and appetite. He is a chronic smoker for the past 3 decades. CT chest revealed mass lesion in the right lobe of lung. a) What is your probable diagnosis? b) Discuss in detail the classification, morphological features and the Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with it.
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