MBBS BIOCHEMISTRY Important Topics

MBBS 1st Year Biochemistry Important Questions

Whenever I think about Biochemistry, I get panic attack. Why? Because to me it was a very dull, monotonous and boring subject. But this happens because I have no such guidance. But here I recommend some tips to study biochemistry efficiently. I read many study guides regarding this, among them I found this from Medstribune.com. You can visit the original post by Click Here.

Must know Basic tips for Biochemistry :

  1. Don’t change your book in the end. Stick to the book you trusted and followed from the beginning. Don’t be like my friend is reading Harper and I am reading Satyanarayana, so also shifted to that book. Just don’t do it.
  2. In theory exams, try to write as much as possible in ‘flow charts’, this will decrease your burden for writing everything continuously, use ‘diagrams’ wherever possible ( even draw ‘air’ if the question is on air pollution ). Using heading even like – INTRODUCTION and further subheadings in the answer. It will make your presentation better and will help you score better.
  3. Very Important : Collect your previous year papers and your college papers because these are savior.
  4. Try to revise the normal values in your daily life by going through the reports of your relatives, family members, neighbors etc.
  5. Self note making : Single best strategy to simplify things and make it easier to retain for a long time and reproduce well in exams. Though time taking but always worth it. Try this you will bless me later for this.
  6. Group study : Many minds working together can be more fruitful and more interesting. You can study for long hours without getting tired, if you will study in a group.
  7. Don’t hesitate to mark in a book : Books are not meant to be shelved, to maximize the benefit, mark all the important things and you can use different color highlighters etc. It will be easy for you to remember it for a long time.

CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE

Long Qusetions
  1. Write in detail about structural organization of protein and briefly mention about various methods used in elucidation of primary structure? ★
  2. Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.
  3. Explain the effects of different factors on rates of enzyme catalyzed reactions
  4. Define enzymes. Classify enzymes with suitable examples. Explain the concepts of active site of enzymes. ★
  5. Define enzyme. Write about factors regulating enzymatic activity. Name four clinically important enzymes. Mention their clinical importance
  6. Classify enzymes. Describe the different types of enzyme inhibition. Add a note on clinical significance of enzymes ★
  7. What are iso enzymes ? write about different iso enzymes and their clinical importance ? ★
  8. Component and functions of phospholipids.
Short Questions
  1. Micelle
  2. Structure of cell membrane
  3. Active transport ★
  4. Classify membrane transport mechanisms. Add a note on active transport ★
  5. Explain with a neat labelled diagram of fluid mosaic model of biological membrane ★
  6. Alpha helical structure of peptide
  7. Isoelectric pH ★
  8. Functions of plasma protein
  9. Secondary structure of plasma protein
  10. Effects of substrate concentration on (i) Enzyme catalyzed reaction (ii) Michaelis Menton Equation ★
  11. Types of enzyme inhibition
  12. Factors influencing enzyme actions
  13. Mode of action of enzymes
  14. Competitive enzyme inhibition ★
  15. Allosteric inhibition ★
  16. Explain how the activity of an enzyme is affected by the pH of the medium
  17. Allosteric enzymes ★
  18. Enzyme inhibition
  19. What is competitive inhibition, give examples
  20. Lineweaver – Burk Plot and its significance ★
  21. Isoenzymes of Lactate dehydrogenase and their significance ★
  22. Mutarotation
  23. Plasma enzymes in myocardial infarction
  24. Define and classify polysaccharides with examples
  25. Chondroitin sulphate
  26. Glycosides
  27. Uronic acid pathway
  28. Glycosaminoglycans ★
  29. Name 5 Enzymes, Serum levels of which are increased in disease condition where such changes seen
  30. What are the various mucopolysaccharides. Add a note on hyaluronic acid
  31. Sphingolipids
  32. Phospholipids and their clinical importance ★
  33. Symport ★
  34. Name the major intracellular and extracellular anion
  35. Markers of lysosomes and mitochondria
  36. What are zymogens? Give an examples ★
  37. Name the basic amino acids
  38. What is meant by quaternary structure of a protein? Name a protein abundantly found in blood that has quaternary structure.
  39. What are the forces that stabilize secondary structure of proteins
  40. Write the principle and significance of biuret test ★
  41. Denaturation Reactions of Proteins
  42. Isoelectric pH of proteins
  43. IUBMB classification of enzymes
  44. Henderson – Hasselbalch equation ★
  45. Ionophores – types with example ★
  46. Significance of multi enzyme complex with example?
  47. Allosteric regulation ★
  48. Give 2 examples of drugs, That act as inhibitors of enzyme and name the enzyme that each one inhibits(2)
  49. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity?
  50. Define metalloenzymes with 2 examples
  51. Double reciprocal plot ★
  52. How do enzymes reduce the activation energy of a reaction?
  53. What is the effect of non-competitive inhibition of Km and Vmax?
  54. Suicide inhibition of enzymes
  55. Therapeutic uses of enzymes
  56. Cardiolipin ★
  57. Define isoenzymes and give two examples
  58. Define Epimer, Name two epimers
  59. Importance of sphingomyelin ★
  60. Amphipathic lipids
  61. Structure of lecithin
  62. Lecithin sphingomyelin ratio ★
  63. Iodine number and its importance ★

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

Long Questions
  1. Describe Glycogenolysis. Add a note on the Glycogen storage disease ★
  2. Name the pathways available for glucose metabolism in the body. Enumerate the steps of aerobic metabolism of glucose an give its energetics
  3. Describe anaerobic glycolysis. Add a note on 2,3 disphosphoglyceric acid
  4. Give an account of Embden-Meyerhoff’s pathway in carbohydrate Metabolism. Describe the substrate level of phosphorylation and its importance in this pathway ★
  5. Process of glycogen synthesis & glycogenolysis.
  6. Write in detail the source for and the pathway of gluconeogenesis. How is this pathway controlled. What is the significance of Cori cycle? ★
  7. Write in detail about Glucose homeostasis in the human organism. Add a note on its biomedical importance
  8. Describe in detail about the metabolic change and complications in diabetes mellitus. Add a short note on the biochemical investigations to be done in DM ★
  9. What is the normal Blood sugar level? Describe the mechanisms and factors that regulate blood sugar level. Add a note on insulin deficiency ★
  10. Discuss the metabolism of tyrosine. Name the biologically important compounds derived from tyrosine. What are the inborn errors of metabolism of this amino acid? ★
  11. Name Ketone bodies. Enumerate the steps in the synthesis of ketone bodies. How are they metabolized? Explain the biochemical basis and consequences of excess production of ketone bodies in Diabetes mellitus and starvation
  12. Describe the HMP shunt pathway. What is the significance in liver and RBCs ★
Short Questions
  1. Fructose intolerance ★
  2. Confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of DM ★
  3. Diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus and laboratory investigation in diabetes mellitus
  4. Glycogenolysis
  5. Rapoport – Leubering cycle ★
  6. How glucose is absorbed from small intestine
  7. Glucose transports ★
  8. Types, functions, tissue specificity and physiological relevance of glucose transporters relevant to insulin secretion and action
  9. Glycolysis in RBC ‘s ★
  10. Glycogen metabolism
  11. Cori’s cycle and glucose alanine cycle ★
  12. Gluconeogenesis
  13. Lactose intolerance ★
  14. Cyclic AMP ★
  15. Outline the pathway and significance of Gluconeogenesis
  16. Glycogen storage disease ★
  17. Von-Grieke’s disease ★
  18. Lactic acidosis
  19. What is normal blood glucose value? Write in detail about its regulation ★
  20. Regulation of Blood glucose
  21. Starvation syndrome
  22. Interpretation of Glucose tolerance test ★
  23. Structure and functions of Insulin ★
  24. What are glycoproteins? Give three examples and its importance
  25. Significance and disorders of pentose phosphate pathway
  26. Significance of HMP shunt pathway ★
  27. Galactosemia
  28. Physiological importance of glycogenolysis
  29. Cahill and Cori cycle ★
  30. Metabolism of glucose 6 phosphate
  31. Metabolism of propionyl CoA ★
  32. Why sucrose is called a non-reducing disaccharide? ★
  33. Key enzymes of glycolysis ★
  34. List the difference between hexokinase and glucokinase
  35. Name two glycogen storage disease ★
  36. Name the insulin dependent glucose transporters and their distribution
  37. Rapoport Lubering shunt ★
  38. Consequences of diabetic ketosis
  39. Oral glucose tolerance test ★
  40. Importance of HbA1c testing ★
  41. Benedict’s test ★
  42. Renal glycosuria
  43. What is glycemic index? Mention two examples of high glycemic index food
  44. Outline the mechanism of action of glucagon
  45. Importance of G6PD deficiency ★
  46. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme
  47. What is metabolic syndrome? What is it significance

LIPID METABOLISM

Long Questions
  1. Outline the steps involved in the B-oxidation of fatty acids ★
  2. Describe the site, process of B oxidation of FA and add a note on carnitine. Write the energetics when palmitic acid is oxidized
  3. Explain the steps of Beta oxidation of palmitic acid. Add a note on energetics ★
  4. Describe in detail the cholesterol synthesis, transport and excretion
  5. How are lipoproteins classified? What are their functions? Describe the metabolism of LDL ★
  6. Sources and fate of acetyl COA, Explain the Denovo synthesis of cholesterol
  7. How are LDL produced in the body? Describe with the help of a diagram. What determine this process of their metabolic fate? ★
  8. Write the structure, source, synthesis and clinical importance of cholesterol
Short Questions
  1. Oxidation of odd carbon fatty acids
  2. Tests to identify ketone bodies in urine ★
  3. Role of liver in integration of metabolism during post prandial state
  4. How are dietary lipids distributed after digestion and absorption?
  5. Alterations in Biochemical investigations in cirrhosis of liver
  6. Digestion and absorption of Triacylglycerides
  7. Beta oxidation of fatty acids ★
  8. Carnitine shuttle ★
  9. Ketone bodies clinical significance and test for detection v
  10. Ketosis ★
  11. Fatty acid synthesis
  12. Cholesterol lowering action of fibrates
  13. Metabolism of LDL with clinical importance ★
  14. Classification of hyperlipidemias and their clinical importance
  15. HDL cycle
  16. Fredrickson’s classification of Hyperlipidemias ★
  17. Alcohol metabolism ★
  18. Metabolic alterations induced by alcohol metabolism
  19. Metabolism of VLDL ★
  20. HDL cholesterol ★
  21. Lipoproteins ★
  22. Role of LDL receptors in metabolism of LDL and the disease caused by its defect ★
  23. Bile salts ★
  24. Structure of cholesterol and its importance in the body
  25. Biochemical changes in Atherosclerosis
  26. Role of bile in the digestion and absorption of dietary lipids
  27. What are Eicosanoids? Discuss the biomedical importance of Arachidonic acid and its derivatives ★
  28. Importance of brown fat ★
  29. Why do patients with cholelithiasis often pass clay colour stools
  30. What is steatorrhea? ★
  31. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids
  32. Source and functions of PUFA ★
  33. Essential Fatty acids ★
  34. Digestion and absorption of lipids
  35. Prostaglandins
  36. Fatty acid synthesis complex
  37. Rothera’s test ★
  38. Chylomicrons ★
  39. Refsum’s disease ★
  40. Brown adipose tissue
  41. Role of brown adipose tissue in heat generation ★
  42. Name the ketone bodies
  43. Mention the types of fatty acid oxidation ★
  44. Antiatherogenic role of HDL cholesterol ? ★
  45. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) ★
  46. Prevention of atherosclerosis
  47. Lipid profile
  48. Key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis and its regulation
  49. Role of HDL as scavenger of cholesterol ★
  50. Role of Apo CIII
  51. What is the mechanism of action of statins? What is the therapeutic use of this group drugs?
  52. Niemann Pick Disease ★
  53. Name two lipid storage diseases (spingolipidoses) and their enzyme defect ★
  54. Functions of phospholipids ★
  55. What are the products of arachidonic acid? ★
  56. Name the essential fatty acids
  57. Metabolic basis of role of aspirin as an anti-platelet agent ★
  58. Zellweger’s syndrome ★
  59. Lipid peroxidation ★
  60. Steatorrhea ★
  61. Why arachidonic acid is not considered purely an essential FA?

AMINO ACID

Long Questions
  1. What is transamination and what is its significance? Write the steps of urea cycle and discuss its control. Describe the enzymes defects in urea synthesis and their consequences ★
  2. How is ammonia produced in the body ? How it is detoxified? Give two causes and effects of Hyper ammonemia ?
  3. What is the normal blood urea level? How is urea synthesized in the body? Add a note on the inborn errors associated with the synthesis of Urea ★
  4. Describe the synthesis of glucose from alanine and mention its regulation.
  5. Give a concise account of the formation, fate and metabolic role of cysteine
  6. Describe glycine metabolism. Write the various compounds formed from glycine
  7. What is the active from of methionine. How it is formed? What are its function? Enumerate the methionine metabolism and disorders associated with it?
  8. Name the branched chain amino acids. Describe the pathway for the metabolism of branched chain amino acids. Add a note on MSUD
  9. Brief about the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Describe in detail about phenylketonuria ★
  10. Explain how pyruvate enters the kerb’s cycle ★
  11. Citric acid cycle for oxidation. How many ATPs are produced in this pathway? What is its amphibolic role? ★
  12. Name aromatic amino acids. Describe the metabolism of tryptophan. Name the important compounds synthesized from it an metabolic disorders ★
  13. Describe the metabolism of Phenylalanine and tyrosine in the body. Add a note on the inborn errors of metabolism associated with them ★
  14. Name the various pathways for glucose metabolism. Give in detail the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and mention its metabolic significance
  15. What are the components of mitochondrial ETC. Describe the events and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation
  16. Define biological oxidation. Mention the components and organization of ETC. Describe in detail the mechanism of ATP synthesis. Add a note on uncouplers and chemiosmotic theory of ETC ★
Short Questions
  1. Urea cycle ★
  2. Transamination reactions ★
  3. Homocystinuria ★
  4. Functions of glycine in the body
  5. What is creatinine clearance? Write the normal value of it ★
  6. Sources of ammonia in the body and its metabolism
  7. Synthesis of Adrenaline
  8. Metabolism of catecholamines ★
  9. Creatine and creatinine synthesis
  10. Transmethylation ★
  11. Glutathione role in amino acid transport
  12. Give an account of the formation of specialized products from glycine
  13. Active methionine
  14. Metabolic role of methionine
  15. MSUD ★
  16. Gamma amino butyric acid ★
  17. Polyamines
  18. Serotonin ★
  19. Albinism ★
  20. Functions of tyrosine in the body ★
  21. Phenylketonuria ★
  22. Products formed from tryptophan
  23. Inborn errors of phenylalanine and Tyrosine ★
  24. Anabolic and catabolic functions of TCA cycle ★
  25. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ★
  26. Enzymes, Coenzymes, inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction
  27. Sources and fate of acetyl CoA
  28. Compare the metabolic changes in well fed state ad starvation
  29. Metabolism in adipose tissue during starvation
  30. Coupling of oxidative phosphorylation, uncouplers and their importance ★
  31. Shuttle pathway across the mitochondrial membrane ★
  32. Substrate level phosphorylation ★
  33. Mechanism of synthesis of ATP in ETC ★
  34. Describe the energetics of complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose to CO2&H2O under aerobic conditions ★
  35. Schematically represent the ETC. Indicate the sites of ATP generation and inhibitors at these sites
  36. Chemiosmotic hypothesis
  37. Importance of transamination reaction
  38. Difference between CPS I and CPS II
  39. Mention the amino acid which take part in one carbon pool
  40. One carbon compound ★
  41. Causes of increased blood urea level
  42. Cystinuria ★
  43. Important functions of serine
  44. Transmethylation reactions ★
  45. Classification of amino acids based on metabolic fate
  46. What are the functions of glutathione
  47. Hartnup Disease ★
  48. Write about glycine cleavage systems an mention the derivatives of Glycine
  49. Polyamines
  50. Role of GABA in the body? Name the amino acid from which it is derived ★
  51. Carnitine transport ★
  52. Nitric Oxide
  53. What are the derivatives of aromatic amino acids? Write about serotonin ★
  54. Laboratory diagnosis of phenylketonuria
  55. Alkaptonuria ★
  56. Enzyme deficiency in albinism, mention two clinical features
  57. Name the derivatives of tryptophan ★
  58. Melatonin
  59. Cyclic AMP ★
  60. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ★
  61. Inhibitors of citric acid cycle ★
  62. Uncouplers of ETC ★
  63. What are cytochromes

PROTEIN

Long Questions
  1. How is protoporphyrin III synthesized in the body? How is regulated add a note on porphyrias ★
  2. Describe the synthesis of HEME. What is porphyria. Classify the different types of porphyrias. Give the enzymes defect and Biochemical findings ★
  3. Describe the catabolism of Heme in the body. Explain the different types of Jaundice. How do you investigate a case of Jaundice ★
  4. Explain the biochemical basis of clinical features of porphyrias
Short Questions
  1. Bile pigments ★
  2. Formation and secretion of bile pigments
  3. Electrophoresis of plasma proteins
  4. Heme catabolism ★
  5. Name three function tests that suffice the differential diagnosis of Jaundice. Explain giving normal values ★
  6. Hemoglobinopathies
  7. Structure of hemoglobin
  8. Obstructive Jaundice ★
  9. Discuss the manifestations, molecular basis and laboratory diagnosis of sickle cell disease
  10. Transport of Bilirubin ★
  11. Catabolism of hemoglobin
  12. Thalassemia’s ★
  13. Hemoglobin S ★
  14. Bence Jones proteins ★
  15. 2,3 BPG formation and its role
  16. Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia ★
  17. Congenital jaundice ★
  18. Structure of collagen
  19. Physiological jaundice ★
  20. Excretion of bilirubin and clinical importance of bilirubin estimations ★
  21. Plasma proteins
  22. Synthesis and conjugation of bilirubin
  23. Wilson’s disease ★
  24. Acute intermittent porphyrias ★
  25. Functions of albumin ★
  26. Immunoglobulins
  27. Glycosylated Hemoglobin ★
  28. Vandenbergh test and its interpretation ★
  29. Abnormal Hemoglobins ★
  30. Write about alpha 1 antitrypsin and disease associated with it
  31. Write about acute phase and negative acute phase protein
  32. Functions of albumin
  33. What is multiple myeloma? What is a laboratory test that can be used to confirm diagnosis of this condition ★
  34. M Band ★
  35. Sickle cell disease ★
  36. Met-Hemoglobinemias ★
  37. Oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin ★
  38. How Hemoglobin binds to Oxygen
  39. Sickle cell Hemoglobin ★
  40. Chloride shift ★

NUTRITION

Long Questions
  1. Describe the sources, requirement, chemistry, biochemical functions and deficiency manifestations of Vitamin A. Add a note on tis hypervitaminosis
  2. Name the active form of Vitamin D, How is it formed in the human body? Explain the metabolic functions, deficiency manifestations and daily requirement of Vitamin D ★
  3. Discuss the co-enzyme functions of Riboflavin, Niacin, Folic acid, Pantothenic Acid and Biotin
  4. Write in detail the sources, daily requirement, coenzyme formation and functions and deficiency manifestation of Niacin
  5. Name the important vitamins which required for the proper functioning of the nerve. Describe the sources, biochemical functions and daily requirements and deficiency manifestations of any one of them.
  6. Describe the chemistry, source, daily requirement, biochemical functions and deficiency manifestations of folic acid
  7. Describe the chemistry, sources, daily requirement, biochemical functions and deficiency manifestations of Vitamin B12. ★
  8. Describe the sources, requirements, chemistry, Biochemical functions and deficiency manifestations of Vitamin C ★
  9. Write about the sources, activation, biochemical functions, deficiency disease and its detection of thiamine ★
  10. Describe how calcium is maintained within plasma. What are the functions of intracellular and extracellular calcium ?
  11. Describe the sources, requirement, absorption, transport, storage forms, functions, deficiency and toxic manifestations of Iron ★
  12. Describe the sources, requirement, physiological functions and metabolism of calcium. Name hypocalcemic conditions. How is the blood calcium level regulated
Short Questions
  1. Functions and coenzymes of cobalamin
  2. Mention the functions and coenzymes of Riboflavin
  3. Metabolic functions of cyanocobalamine with examples ★
  4. Sources and daily requirement of vitamin A with special reference to Rhodopsin synthesis ★
  5. Ascorbic acid ★
  6. Functions of Tocopherol
  7. Basal Metabolic Rate
  8. Coenzyme functions of folic acid ★
  9. Vitamin “K” cycle ★
  10. Biochemical role of 1,25 dihydro cholecalciferol
  11. Disorders of malnutrition ★
  12. Beri Beri ★
  13. RDA ★
  14. Vitamin K ★
  15. Functions of vitamin B6 and its deficiency manifestations ★
  16. Occupational hazards ★
  17. Detoxification of xenobiotics ★
  18. Metabolism of zinc ★
  19. Role of Vitamin D in calcium metabolism ★
  20. Hyponatremia
  21. Mention the enzymes which require selenium as co factors ★
  22. Biological value of proteins
  23. Conjugation reactions involved in metabolism of xenobiotics
  24. Essential amino acids
  25. Functions of phosphate ★
  26. Total Parenteral Nutrition and its Importance ★
  27. Role of Niacin as coenzyme ★
  28. Methyl Malonic Acidiuria
  29. The sources and biochemical function of pyridoxine ★
  30. Importance of calcium, Mention normal serum concentration
  31. Xenobiotics ★
  32. Regulation of Blood calcium level
  33. Trace elements ★
  34. Rhodopsin cycle ★
  35. Functions of calcium ★
  36. Calculate your daily caloric requirement
  37. Vitamin E
  38. Vitamin B12 ★
  39. Explain why B12 deficiency causes macrocytic anemia ★
  40. Wald’s visual cycle ★
  41. Fibre diet
  42. Heavy metal poisons, write biochemical consequences and diagnosis of any two
  43. Fluorosis ★
  44. Detoxification ★
  45. Antioxidants ★
  46. Thiamine, with reference to its functions in body, dietary sources and deficiency manifestations
  47. Folate trap ★
  48. Calcium Homeostasis ★
  49. Protein Energy Malnutrition ★
  50. Balanced Diet ★
  51. Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) ★
  52. What is xenobiotics ★
  53. Rickets ★
  54. Formation of Vitamin D and the formation of its active form ★
  55. Primary antioxidant enzymes and their activity
  56. Detoxification by conjugation
  57. Reactions catalyzed by biotin
  58. What is the functions of cytochrome p450 in the body? ★
  59. Carbon monoxide
  60. Mention two second messenger ★
  61. Give examples of 4 conjugation agents in the body that are involved in metabolism of xenobiotics
  62. Histidine load test ★
  63. Normal serum Electrolyte values
  64. Acidosis causes hyperkalemia, Why?
  65. Causes of hyponatremia ★
  66. Functions of copper
  67. Functions of pyridoxal phosphate
  68. Wald’s Visual cycle ★
  69. Biochemical functions of vitamin C ★
  70. Give two examples for xenobiotic metabolism acting on endogenous substance
  71. Functions of phosphorus
  72. Co enzyme activity of Biotin ★
  73. Calcitonin
  74. Biochemical alteration in PEM ★
  75. Ocular changes in Vit A deficiency ★
  76. Kwashiorkor ★
  77. Biochemical functions of zinc
  78. Cytochrome P450
  79. Hormones that regulate blood calcium levels
  80. Biochemical functions of Iron
  81. Lead poisoning ★
  82. Write two functions and RDA of pyridoxine ★
  83. List two dietary sources and 2 biochemical functions of vitamin C in the body ★
  84. What is meant by glycemic index of food ?
  85. Parameter for the assessment of Nutritive Value of Proteins
  86. Active forms of Thiamin and Riboflavin
  87. What is the SDA and importance in calculating caloric requirement of an individual ★
  88. What are trace mineral? Give RDA of any 2 of them
  89. Hemochromatosis ★
  90. Metal cofactors of enzymes
  91. Zinc containing enzymes – any two
  92. Define Respiratory Quotient ★
  93. Fluorosis ★
  94. Beri Beri ★
  95. Wernicke-Karsakoff syndrome ★
  96. Metabolic role of magnesium ★
  97. Biological value of proteins
  98. Hyperkalemia
  99. FIGLU ★
  100. List two difference between marasmus and kwashiorkor
  101. Limiting amino acids
  102. Functions of selenium ★
  103. Mechanism of cyanide poisoning
  104. Dietary fiber ★
  105. Deficiency manifestations of Vit D ★
  106. Define BMR, Give its value

HOMEOSTASIS

Long Questions
  1. What is the normal Blood pH? Write a note on blood buffers. What is the acid base status in Respiratory acidosis and how it is compensated by the buffers ★
  2. Write briefly the mechanisms by which the pH of the body fluids is regulated.
  3. Write in detail diagrammatically the reaction mechanisms by which HCO3 is reclaimed and regenerated in kidneys. What is meant by metabolic acidosis and how it is compensated? ★
  4. Write how Acid-Base balance I maintained in the Body. Mention causes and biochemical alteration of metabolic acidosis ★
  5. Name the important buffer systems in the body. Describe in detail the role of lungs and kidneys in maintenance of acid base balance ★
  6. What is a buffer? Describe in detail about the Renal regulation of Blood pH ?
  7. Describe the role of the kidney to maintain the pH of blood. What are the compesatory mechanism the kidney will adopt to maintain pH in the presence of metabolic acidosis ★
  8. Describe the role of plasma and renal buffers in maintaining acid base homeostasis ?
  9. What are functions of sodium in the body? Describe the working of the renin-angiotensin -aldosterone system to maintain optimal amounts of sodium in the body.
Short Questions
  1. Maintenance of pH of blood Anion gap ★
  2. Difference between Metabolic and Respiratory acidosis ★
  3. Respiratory acidosis ★
  4. Blood buffers
  5. Role of kidneys in acid base balance
  6. Anion gap and its diagnostic importance ★
  7. Buffer systems in the body ★
  8. Role of parathormone in calcium, phosphate homeostasis ★
  9. Role of lungs in acid base balance
  10. Renal Regulation of pH of blood ★
  11. Metabolic Acidosis ★
  12. Explain the metabolic inter-relationship between sodium concentration and water volume
  13. Give an account of water distribution and its balance in the body
  14. Causes and clinical features of dehydration
  15. Renal mechanism of maintaining acid base balance ★
  16. What is surfactant? Explain it importance in the body in health and disease ★
  17. List the different mechanisms involved in hormone action and write about the mechanism of action of hormone using cAMP as second messenger ★
  18. G Proteins ★
  19. Functions of adrenal cortical hormones
  20. Cyclic AMP ★
  21. Functions of Glucocorticoids ★
  22. Endemic goiter ★
  23. Mechanism of action of thyroid hormones
  24. Sources, requirement and functions of Iodine
  25. List various thyroid function tests and give the importance of free thyroid hormones in assessing thyroid function ★
  26. High anion gap metabolic acidosis ★
  27. Plasma buffers ★
  28. Bicarbonate Buffer system ★
  29. Anion gap ★
  30. Normal value of plasma osmolarity and urine osmolality
  31. Role of anti diuretic hormone in the regulation of osmolality
  32. What are the reference levels of glucose and protein in CSF? ★
  33. What is pulmonary surfactant and its clinical importance
  34. Addison’s disease ★
  35. RDA and functions of Iodine ★

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Long Questions
  1. Define the term Replication, Transcription and Translation. Describe the steps involved in Protein synthesis ★
  2. Describe the Denovo synthesis of purine Nucleotides ★
  3. Describe the Biosynthesis of purine nucleotide. Add a note on regulation
  4. Describe recombinant DNA technology. Explain the different techniques with its application ★
  5. Discuss about Nucleic acid under following headings a)Types b) Functions c) Components d) Char gaff’s rule of DNA composition e)Different forms of DNA double helix f)difference between DNA and RNA (2) ★
  6. Describe the mechanism of DNA Replication, Add a note on DNA repair mechanism (2) ★
  7. Discuss DNA replication. Mention the inhibitors of replication
  8. What is the reference range for serum uric acid? What is the source of Uric acid in the Body? What is its ultimate fate? Discuss Causes of abnormalities in levels of Sr.Uric Acid ★
  9. Describe in detail the steps in protein synthesis. Add a note about post translational modification and inhibitors of Protein synthesis ★
  10. What is cloning? Mention the various types of cloning. Describe in detail the steps involved in recombinant DNA technology ★
  11. What is polymerase chain reaction? Write a note on the steps involved in PCR and its applications
  12. Write in details about the initiation, Elongation and termination of transcription. Give an account of post transcriptional processing.
Short Questions
  1. How is uric acid formed in the body? Write a note on hyperuricemia ★
  2. Write an account of Protein synthesis
  3. Name the disorders associated with Purine Nucleotide Metabolism ★
  4. PRPP Biosynthesis and its importance ★
  5. Synthetic Nucleotides and their importance ★
  6. Formation of uric acid
  7. Functions of Nucleotides
  8. Drugs that inhibit Protein synthesis ★
  9. cAMP
  10. What are nucleotides? Name any three biologically important nucleotides and their importance
  11. Salvage pathway ★
  12. Hyperuricemia ★
  13. GOUT ★
  14. Purine Salvage pathway ★
  15. Okazaki fragments ★
  16. Replication
  17. List various DNA repair mechanisms and give their biomedical importance
  18. Structure of DNA
  19. Functions of proteins and enzymes involved in DNA replication
  20. Messenger RNA ★
  21. Degeneracy of Code
  22. Difference between DNA and RNA ★
  23. Reverse transcription ★
  24. Write about post transcriptional processing, Mention about post transcriptional inhibitors
  25. Transcription
  26. Classify RNA and explain its functions ★
  27. tRNA ★
  28. Post-Transcriptional modification of RNA ★
  29. Post translations modification with examples
  30. Lac Operon ★
  31. Use of plasmids in genetic Engineering ★
  32. Clinical applications of recombinant DNA technology ★
  33. Gene therapy ★
  34. Plasmids ★
  35. Restriction Endonucleases ★
  36. Recombinant DNA Technology
  37. PCR and its application in Medicine ★
  38. Blotting techniques ★
  39. Southern blot technique & Applications ★
  40. Carcinogen
  41. Protooncogenes and oncogenes ★
  42. Oncogenes ★
  43. Tumour Marker ★
  44. Apoptosis ★
  45. Codons
  46. Causes of secondary gout ★
  47. Enzymes as tumour markers ★
  48. Point Mutation ★
  49. Nucleosomes
  50. Modes of gene therapy
  51. Types of DNA repair mechanisms – Write in details any one mechanism
  52. Operon concept ★
  53. Genomic library ★
  54. Explain the anti neoplastic effect of methotrexate
  55. Outline the reaction by which deooxynucletides are formed in a cell from ribonucleotides ★
  56. Xeroderma pigmentosum ★
  57. DNA fingerprinting 
  58. Splicing of hnRNA (hetero nuclear RNA) ★
  59. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis ★
  60. Anti HIV drugs
  61. What are monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies
  62. Frameshift mutation with an example ★
  63. We need two primers for PCR, justify
  64. Mechanism of action of chloramphenicol ★
  65. List 4 features of genetic code
  66. Restriction endonucleases ★
  67. Mutagens
  68. Compare promoter with enhancer
  69. What are oncogenes ?
  70. Four synthetic analogues of purine and pyrimidine bases used as therapeutic agent
  71. Name the amino acids required for purine biosynthesis
  72. Inhibitors of Protein biosynthesis
  73. Wobble hypothesis ★
  74. Telomerase and Telomere ★
  75. Secondary hyperuricemias
  76. Enzyme defect in Lesch Nyhan Syndrome ★
  77. Mechanism of action of methotrexate and dicoumarol ★

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Long Questions
  1. Name liver function tests with diagnostic significance of each. Write in detail the biochemical tests of any three done in your laboratory
  2. Describe the separation of serum protein by paper electrophoresis. Draw the pattern of electrophoresis in 1) Multiple Myeloma 2) Nephrotic Syndrome ★
  3. List the parameters that are commonly used in clinical practice as indicator to assess the functions of the liver. Explain the basis of the use of these parameters in assessment of liver function. Briefly discuss medical conditions in which these parameters become abnormal ★
  4. Enumerate the liver functions tests and how Vanden Bergh test distinguishes different types of jaundice ★
Short Questions
  1. What is isotopes? What are its applications in biochemistry
  2. Pancreatic function tests
  3. Partition chromatography ★
  4. Flurometry ★
  5. ELISA
  6. Renal Function tests
  7. Chromatography ★
  8. Electrophoresis
  9. Clearance test ★
  10. Classify jaundice based on liver function tests
  11. Markers of cholestasis
  12. Test for glomerular function
  13. Creatinine
  14. Microalbuminuria and its importance v
  15. Radioactive Isotopes in Medicine
  16. Colorimeter ★
  17. Test to assess renal tubular function
  18. Renal function tests ★
  19. Definition and importance of creatine clearance test
  20. Paper chromatography ★
  21. Hemoglobin electrophoresis of 2 year old boy with severe anemia showed elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 without any HbA. How will you interpret this?
  22. Renal threshold substances
  23. What is the principles of a radio immuno assay (RIA) ★
  24. Beer lambert’s law ★
  25. Name 2 enzymes that are increase in hepatic jaundice ★
  26. What is the principle of affinity chromatography ★
  27. Explain the clinical relevance of sr. Creatinine ★
  28. Give the normal values (reference interval) for the following parameters in blood/serum. a) Creatinine b) Potassium c) TSH d) pH
  29. Tests to assess biosynthetic function of liver
  30. How will you interpret following conditions? a) Elevated Alkaline phosphatase. b) Elevated Acid phosphatase ★
  31. What are the laboratory tests done for diagnosis of adrenal hypofunction and hyperfunction?
5 1 vote
Article Rating
Recommended Posts
Clinical MCQ 3

A 65-year-old woman with postmenopausal bleeding was referred to an outpatient hysteroscopy

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments