MBBS 1st Year Physiology Important Topics

Do you want to know the reason behind functioning of the organs of our human body? Then you must have to read physiology in depth. I always guide the students to put labor on 1st year subjects and it will give you the basic concepts of upcoming MBBS subjects. These basic concepts let you drive to improve your scorecard. So before starting physiology let’s segregate some important topics. Here in this post there are lot of questions I write down. But as I already told before that, this is the time to build up your concepts. So try to read all these topics. Here are some tips for you

  1. Study the topics with proper diagram and charts
  2. I always say – Meditation is the key for concentration and memory
  3. Discuss the topics with your friends
  4. Write down the gist points in a paper
  5. Read all the topics I listed here.
  6. Don’t panic. Just read and don’t think about the overcome.

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY

This chapter remind you the time of your pre MBBS topics in Biology. This chapter is much more familiar to you. Just you have to read a little bit more for in-depth concepts.

Long Questions
  1. Homeostatic regulation
  2. Action potential and its phases with diagram ★★
Short Questions
  1. Transport mechanism across the cell membrane ★
  2. Membrane transport proteins
  3. Secondary active transport ★★★
  4. Na-K ATPase Pump and Functions ★★
  5. Active transport
  6. Passive transport
  7. Feed back mechanism ★★
  8. Negative and Positive feed back mechanism ★★
  9. Transport across a semipermeable membrane
  10. Lipids in cell membrane ★
  11. Aquaporins ★★
  12. Micelle formation
  13. Facilitated diffusion ★★★
  14. Intercellular connections
  15. Gap Junctions ★★
  16. G-Protein Coupled receptors ★
  17. cAMP signaling pathway, with an example ★
  18. Second messengers
  19. Phagocytosis ★
  20. Apoptosis ★★★

HAEMATOLOGY

This chapter also familiar to you. You already covered most of the topics in your class XII Biology.

Long Questions
  1. Name the different blood group systems, mention the importance of blood groups, explain the procedure for determining the blood group of an individual, give the basics and principles of treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis ★
  2. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups, Clinical significance. What is Cross matching? ★★★
  3. Describe Jaundice and its types. What is Physiological Jaundice? ★★
  4. Define anemia. Classify them. List the important investigations to confirm the various types of anemia ★★★
  5. Define hemostasis, describe the briefly about the mechanisms of clotting. Short note on hemophilia ★★★
  6. Define hemostasis. Describe the various stages involved in coagulation process ★★★
  7. Describe the various stages and the factors regulating Erythropoiesis. Short note (a) sickle cell anemia (b) Polycythemia ★★
  8. What do you understand by the terms innate and acquired immunity? Describe the phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity ★★
  9. Describe the structure, synthesis and functions of platelets. Add a note on fibrinolysin system in the blood
  10. Describe the functions of plasma albumin and plasma globulin. Give the causes and consequences of low plasma albumin levels ★
  11. Name the different protein fractions of plasma, what is the normal concentration of each and describe the functions of each
  12. Describe the physiological roles of the different types of granulocytes circulating in blood ★
Short Questions
  1. Functions of blood
  2. Albumin globulin ratio ★★★
  3. Functions of plasma proteins ★★
  4. Erythropoiesis ★
  5. Explain the stages of development of erythrocytes
  6. Differentiate Adult haemoglobin and Fetal haemoglobin ★★★
  7. Red cell indices ★★
  8. Fate of hemoglobin after hemolysis ★★
  9. Monocyte macrophage system ★★
  10. Functional types of lymphocytes and its functions
  11. Functions of macrophages ★★
  12. Describe the formation and functions of immunoglobulins ★
  13. Differentiate humoral and cellular immunity ★★
  14. Complement system for antibody action ★
  15. Functions of platelets ★★
  16. Composition and functions of lymph
  17. Significance of ESR ★★
  18. Erythroblastosis foetalis ★★★
  19. Rh incompatibility ★★★
  20. Mismatched blood transfusion ★★★
  21. Hazards of blood transfusion ★★★
  22. Cross matching ★★★
  23. Reactions due to incompatible blood transfusion. What is autologous Transfusion? ★★★
  24. Physiological principles of tissue transplantation
  25. Opsonization ★
  26. Cytokines
  27. Cells which express Major Histocompatibility complex II ★★
  28. Autoimmune disease
  29. Megaloblastic anemia ★★★
  30. What is the role of Vitamin K in the body? ★★★
  31. Landsteiner’s law ★★
  32. List the Vitamin K dependent coagulation factors ★★
  33. Heparin
  34. Functions of Eosinophil ★

MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

In some books this chapter is included in “Neuromuscular Physiology” but here I separate because of few important topics, you can’t miss.

Long Questions
  1. Write in detail the electron microscopic structure of skeletal muscle and the molecular mechanism of muscular contraction. Add a note on Rigor Mortis ★★
  2. Explain the sliding filament hypothesis and outline the main events in the cross-bridge cycle ★★★
  3. Mention the different types of smooth muscles, discuss their structure, functions and energetics when compared to that of a skeletal muscle ★★
Short Questions
  1. Neuromuscular junctions
  2. Sequence of events of neuromuscular junction ★★
  3. Resting membrane potential ★★★
  4. Discuss the ionic basics of resting membrane potential and action potential ★
  5. Difference between three types of muscles(skeletal, cardiac and smooth) ★★
  6. Excitation – contraction coupling ★★★
  7. Nernst equilibrium potential ★★★
  8. Mechanism of muscle contraction (sliding filament theory) ★★★
  9. Sarcomere ★★
  10. Skeletal neuromuscular transmission
  11. Describe the physiological basis of length – tension relationship
  12. Isotonic and isometric contraction ★
  13. Role of calcium ion in skeletal muscle contraction ★
  14. Name the muscle proteins. What is the role of Troponin C in muscle contraction ★★
  15. Draw a schematic diagram of the sarcomere and label its components ★
  16. Mechanisms of fatigue in skeletal muscle
  17. Define all or none low. How is this law applicable in skeletal and cardiac muscle ★★★
  18. Calcium transporters on the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum
  19. Role of ATP in relaxation of muscle
  20. Role of tropomyosin in muscle contraction ★★★
  21. Type of acetyl choline receptor on skeletal muscle and its function
  22. Refractory period ★★
  23. What is myasthenia gravis. Describe the biological basis of its treatment ★★

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

This is a small chapter. Most of the times you get short questions from this chapter.

Long Questions
  1. What are the different types of salivary glands? Describe the composition, functions and regulation of secretion of saliva ★★
  2. Describe the composition, functions, different phases and regulation of secretion of gastric juice ★★★
  3. Gastric juice secretion with experimental evidence. Short note on mucosal barrier and gastric ulcer ★
  4. Describe the composition, function and regulation of secretion of pancreatic juice ★
  5. Describe digestion and absorption of fat in the digestive tract. Write a note on steatorrhoea ★
  6. Describe in detail the phases of deglutition ★★
Short Questions
  1. Explain mechanism of secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach ★★
  2. Stages of deglutition ★★
  3. Explain components and functions of bile ★
  4. Enterohepatic circulation of bile ★
  5. Enterohepatic circulation ★★★
  6. Describe the phases of gastric juice secretion ★
  7. Peristalsis ★
  8. Stages of deglutition ★★
  9. Regulation of salivary secretions
  10. Digestive proteases
  11. Functions of pancreatic juice ★
  12. Composition and functions of saliva ★★
  13. Types of gastrointestinal movements and factors affecting gastric motility ★★
  14. Exocrine functions of pancreas ★★
  15. Gastric emptying ★★
  16. Gastric Motility and Migrating Motor Complex (MMC) ★★★
  17. Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer ★★★
  18. Transports of amino acids in gut and kidney ★
  19. Myoenteric reflex ★★
  20. Succus entericus ★
  21. Mechanism of actions of gastrin
  22. Functions of bile salts
  23. Lingual lipase ★
  24. Draw schematically how HCL is formed ★★
  25. Achalasia Cardia ★★
  26. Steatorrhea
  27. Somatomedins
  28. Briefly describe the process of deglutition ★★
  29. Dietary fibers ★★

RENAL SYSTEM

This chapter is very much important for long as well as short questions.

Long Questions
  1. Explain the counter current mechanism in the concentration of urine. Short note on diuresis ★★★
  2. Describe the structure of the glomerular filter bed, and the factors affecting GFR. Add a note on measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Explain why Inulin clearance indicates GFR ★★
  3. Define GFR. Explain briefly about mechanism of factors regulating GFR, Describe the best test for estimation of GFR. What is the routinely used clinical test to assess renal function? ★★★
  4. Describe the mechanism of water absorption in the different segments of renal tubule ★★
  5. Short note Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Regulation of renin secretion and pathway of renin angiotensin system (RAAS) ★★★
  6. Describe the mechanism of urine formation ★
  7. Renal clearance and it’s applications. What is Inulin clearance, Urea clearance, PAH and creatinine clearance?
  8. Describe the filling and emptying of the urinary bladder, How is micturition controlled ?
Short Questions
  1. Inulin clearance ★★
  2. Reabsorptive functions of the renal tubules
  3. Juxta Glomerular apparatus ★★
  4. Glomerular filtration rate ★★★
  5. Concept of renal clearance ★
  6. Autoregulation of GFR ★
  7. Water reabsorption in the renal tubule ★★
  8. Counter current system in kidney ★★★
  9. Regulation of acid base balance by kidney ★
  10. Acidification of urine
  11. Role of kidney in the maintenance of water balance in body
  12. Explain the renal contribution of pH control ★
  13. Describe briefly how micturition takes place
  14. Innervation of urinary bladder and the role of nerves in micturition
  15. PAH clearance ★★
  16. Renin angiotensin system ★★★
  17. Macula densa
  18. Atonic bladder
  19. Anion gap ★★★
  20. Cystometrogram and its significance
  21. Bartter’s syndrome
  22. Loop diuretics ★
  23. Enumerate heat loss mechanism (Temperature regulations) ★★

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Long questions from this chapter is not very common but you can’t miss the important topics listed here.

Long Questions
  1. Enumerate the hormones of the anterior pituitary, briefly explain the mechanism of their secretion, discuss the actions of growth hormones and their disorders ★★
  2. Give an account of the secretion, storage, release and functions of the Neurohypophyseal hormones. Short note on Diabetes Insipidus ★★
  3. Describe in detail the synthesis and functions of thyroid hormones. Add a note on Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism ★★★
  4. Name the hormones concerned with the calcium metabolism. Describe their synthesis and functions. Add a note on the clinical manifestations of hyposecretion of them. Actions of paratharmone ★★★
  5. Calcium homeostasis and it’s role in physiological processes ★★★
  6. Name any four hormones producing hyperglycemia. Explain the actions of the chief hypoglycemic hormone on liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Briefly explain GTT. Short note of Diabetes mellitus and physiological basics of its treatment ★
  7. What is the normal level of glucose in the blood, how is blood glucose maintained within normal limits, Add a note on Diabetes mellitus ★★
  8. Describe the actions of insulin on (a) Adipose tissue (b) Skeletal Muscle (c) Liver . Add a note on regulation of insulin secretion ★
  9. Describe the functions and regulation of Insulin. Add a note on polyuria ★★
  10. Give an account of the hormones of adrenal cortex, their site of production and the regulation of their secretion ★
  11. Enumerate the hormones of adrenal gland. Give in detail the actions of aldosterone and the mechanisms that regulate its secretion
  12. Describe the synthesis, regulation and functions of aldosterone. Add a not on Addisonian crisis ★★
Short Questions
  1. Neuroendocrine reflex ★
  2. Feedback mechanism in the regulation of hormones ★★★
  3. What is the normal blood calcium levels give an account of hormonal regulation of blood calcium, what are the clinical tests by which you can detect tetany in a patient ★
  4. Acromegaly ★★
  5. Dwarfism ★★
  6. Rickets ★★★
  7. Osteomalacia ★★
  8. Pituitary Dwarfism
  9. Hypothalamic control of pituitary gland
  10. Diabetes insipidus ★
  11. Glucose transporters
  12. Enumerate the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Describe the actions of growth hormone
  13. Functions of any one hormone of posterior pituitary ★
  14. Hypersecretion of growth hormone ★★★
  15. Myxedema ★★★
  16. Hypothyroidism
  17. Difference between cretinism and dwarfism ★
  18. Thyroxine synthesis ★★
  19. Thyrotoxicosis ★★★
  20. Thyroid function tests ★★
  21. Physiological effects of thyroid hormone ★★
  22. Cretinism- its cause, features and strategy to prevent it ★★
  23. Write the actions of paratharmone ★
  24. Tetany
  25. Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus
  26. Physiological role of glucagon ★
  27. Pancreatic C-peptide and its significance as a laboratory test.
  28. Mechanism of action of insulin ★★
  29. Conn’s syndrome ★★★
  30. Adrenogenital syndrome ★★
  31. Functions of glucocorticoids ★★★
  32. Describe the biosynthesis, secretion and actions of testosterone ★
  33. Cushing syndrome ★★
  34. Functions of cortisol ★
  35. Function of cortisol in stress and inflammation ★★
  36. Difference between actions of adrenaline and nor adrenaline
  37. Name hormones of the hypothalamus ★
  38. Write the actions of prolactin ★★
  39. Addisonian crisis ★★★
  40. Give an example of neuroendocrine reflex. Briefly outline its pathway
  41. Aldosterone escape ★
  42. Name the hormones involved in calcium homeostasis and the main organs that will act

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

You can’t go to exam hall without covering this chapter. Two short questions are must from this chapter. Also you can get long questions from here.

Long Questions
  1. What is menstrual cycle, Explain the ovarian changes taking place during menstrual cycle ★★★
  2. Describe the hormonal and endometrial changes occurring during a normal menstrual cycle ★★★
  3. Mention the various phases of menstrual cycle. Correlate changes in the ovary with changes in the Endometrium of the uterus during a menstrual cycle ★★
  4. Describe the hormonal regulation of human menstrual cycle ★★
Short Questions
  1. Composition of semen and its uses as a diagnostic tool
  2. Semen analysis ★★
  3. Describe briefly the formation and functions of corpus luteum ★★
  4. Oxytocin ★★
  5. Indicators of ovulation
  6. Functions of sertoli cells ★
  7. Functions of placenta ★★
  8. Placental hormones ★★
  9. Explain the hormonal regulation of menstrual cycle ★★
  10. Spermatogenesis ★★★
  11. Fetoplacental unit ★★
  12. Phases of menstrual cycle
  13. Ovarian and endometrial changes of menstrual cycle ★★★
  14. Describe the hormones acting on the breast ★
  15. Latest pregnancy tests
  16. Oral contraceptives ★★★
  17. Contraceptive methods for the male
  18. Contraceptive methods in female ★★★
  19. IUCD ★★
  20. Contraceptives ★★★
  21. HCG ★★
  22. Genetic basis of sex determination ★★
  23. Functions of testosterone
  24. Tests to detect ovulation ★★
  25. How does temperature influence in spermatogenesis ★
  26. Effects of estrogen on uterine endometrium ★
  27. LH Surge ★★★
  28. Menarche
  29. Role of oxytocin in female reproduction ★★

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

This chapter is “THE” chapter of all. If you are too much unlucky then only you don’t get any long questions from here. So don;t miss any topics from here.

Long Questions
  1. Describe the structure and function of the conductive system of the heart and compare the action potential of ventricular muscle and pacemakers ★
  2. Describe with help of diagram Electrical, mechanical and volume changes during one cardiac cycle. Short note on heart sounds ★★
  3. Describe in detail with diagram of Events in cardiac cycle. Left ventricular, left arterial and aortic pressure changes during a cardiac cycle. What is second heart sound ★★★
  4. Draw a normal ECG of Lead II. Describe the waves
  5. Describe cardiac output. Mention on method of determination of cardiac output in man. Describe the factors regulating cardiac output? What is the significance of ejection fraction in ventricular functioning ★★
  6. Define cardiac output. Discuss the factors regulating cardiac output. Add note on Fick’s principle ★★
  7. What is vasomotor center? What are its inputs and functions ?
  8. Discuss the short term and long term regulation of Arterial blood pressure. Add a note on Neurogenic Hypertension.
  9. Define BP. Describe how the BP is regulated. How do you measure the BP in Man ★
  10. What is systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressure? Describe the short-term regulation of Arterial blood pressure ★★
  11. Describe the fetal circulation and discuss it special features. Add a note on patent ductus arteriosis ★
  12. Describe the phasic changes in coronary circulation and its clinical importance. How is coronary blood flow measures in man? Give an account of regulation of coronary blood flow ★★
Short Questions
  1. Auto rhythmicity of heart ★★★
  2. Excitation contraction coupling in cardiac muscle ★★
  3. Isometric contraction phase of the ventricles ★★★
  4. First heart sound ★★
  5. Draw a normal ECG and label their components
  6. Describe the 3 bipolar limb leads of ECG. What is the significance of (a) PR interval (b) ST segment in an ECG ? ★
  7. P-R interval ★★★
  8. QRS complex ★★★
  9. Einthoven’s law ★
  10. Normal ECG in Lead II, Write a note on PR interval ★
  11. Influence of heart rate on cardiac output
  12. Define cardiac output. What are the methods to measure the cardiac output? ★★
  13. Define Fick’s principle. How to determine cardiac output with this ? ★★★
  14. Sino aortic Reflex / mechanism
  15. Electrical activity of the SA node ★
  16. Frank-starling’s law of heart ★★★
  17. SA node as pacemaker ★★★
  18. Refractory period ★★★
  19. Pacemaker potential ★★★
  20. Ventricular action potential
  21. Windkissel effect ★
  22. Baroreceptor reflex ★
  23. Jugular Venous Pulse ★
  24. Regulation of coronary circulation
  25. Foetal circulation ★
  26. Heart failure ★
  27. Hypovolemic shock ★★
  28. Features of shock ★★★
  29. Conducting system of the heart ★
  30. What is myocardial infarction? State one ECG change in this condition
  31. J Point ★
  32. Heart block ★★★
  33. Define preload and state its effect on cardiac function ★★
  34. Give two examples of high cardiac output state and low cardiac output state
  35. Factors regulating cardiac output
  36. AV nodal delay ★★★
  37. Factors influencing heart rate ★★
  38. Bainbridge reflex ★
  39. Korotkoff sounds ★
  40. Mean arterial pressure ★★
  41. Reynold’s number ★★
  42. Short term regulation of blood pressure ★★
  43. Dicrotic notch ★
  44. Anaphylactic shock ★★★

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Most of the times you get short questions from this chapter. Also the diagrams are very important.

Long Questions
  1. Describe the pulmonary circulation, its regulation and special features ★★
  2. How CO2 is transported in the Blood? Draw a Co2 dissociation curve for arterial and venous blood. What is Bohr’s effect? ★★
  3. Draw an oxygen dissociation curve & describe how oxygen is transported in the blood. Depict the Bhor’s effect. Add a note on Fetal hemoglobin ★★★
  4. Describe the neural regulation of respiration. Add a note on periodic breathing ★
  5. What is hypoxia? Explain the different types of hypoxia with examples. What types respond to oxygen therapy. Add a note on acclimatization at high altitudes ★★
  6. Name the respiratory centres. Describe in details about the chemical regulation of respiration. Distinguish between the two types of respiratory failure. Add a note on oxygen toxicity
Short Questions
  1. Special features of pulmonary circulation ★★
  2. Surfactant ★★
  3. Lung compliance ★
  4. Maximum Breathing capacity
  5. Lung function tests
  6. Discuss any two lung function tests which can detect obstructive lung disease ★
  7. Define FRC, RV, and Minimal volume, and their clinical significance ★★★
  8. What is FRC, How will you measure FRC and its clinical importance ? ★★
  9. Residual volume ★★
  10. Anatomical dead space ★★★
  11. Ventilation perfusion ratio ★★
  12. Dead space ★★★
  13. Haldane’s effect ★★
  14. CO2 transport
  15. Chloride shift ★
  16. Oxygen dissociation curve ★★★
  17. Neural regulation of respiration ★★
  18. Chemical regulation of respiration ★
  19. Herring – Breuer reflex ★★
  20. Types of hypoxia and its causes ★★★
  21. Anemic hypoxia
  22. Asphyxia ★★★
  23. Cheyne – stokes respiration ★★★
  24. Periodic breathing ★
  25. Voluntary hyperventilation ★★
  26. Hypoxic hypoxia
  27. Cyanosis ★★
  28. Bodily responses in man at high altitude ★
  29. Caisson disease ★★
  30. Decompression sickness ★★★
  31. Artificial respiration ★
  32. Muscles of inspiration ★★
  33. Muscle actions responsible for (a) normal expiration (b) forced expiration
  34. Respiratory distress syndrome
  35. Respiratory distress syndrome of new born ★★★
  36. FEV1 ★★★
  37. Physiological dead space ★★★
  38. Oxygen debt ★★★
  39. What is bohr’s effect? What is its physiological significance ? ★★★
  40. Neural centres for Regulation of respiration
  41. SCUBA diving

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Just like CVS you can’t miss this chapter too. You always have a chance to get a long question from here.

Long Questions
  1. Classify Synapse and describe the mechanism of transmission across the synapse. Mention the various properties of synapse. Add a note on central neurotransmitters ★★
  2. What is stretch reflex? Describe in detail the structure and functions of muscle spindle. Add a note on reciprocal inhibition ★★★
  3. Enumerate the descending tracts of spinal cord. Describe in detail the pyramidal tracts. Mention its functions and effects of lesion at different levels ★
  4. Describe the origin, course, termination and functions of pyramidal tract. Write a note on upper motor lesion ★★
  5. Corticospinal tract: Trace the pathway, Difference between UMNL and LMNL(2) ★★★
  6. Describe the origin, course and termination of corticospinal tract. Mention its function and the effects of lesion in the internal capsule, Add a note on Hemiplegia ★★★
  7. Describe the pathway for pain sensation. What is the physiological basis of referred pain? Explain the role of dorsal horn in the inhibition of pain sensation ★★
  8. Enumerate the ascending tracts in the spinal cord. Describe the pathway of pain in detail. Discuss the descending pain modulatory pathways. Add a note on referred pain & Gating pain ★
  9. Classify pain. What are the receptors for pain? Describe the dual pathways for pain. What is Analgesic system in the brain? ★★
  10. Describe the pathway for fine touch. Add a note on sensory homunculus ★
  11. Describe the various nuclei, connections and functions of thalamus. Add a note on thalamic syndrome ★★
  12. Hypothalamus: Enumerate the Nuclei of Hypothalamus. Explain the connection and functions of hypothalamus. Note on hypothalamic obesity ★
  13. Describe the connections and functions of Basal ganglia. Add a note on parkinsonism ★★★
  14. Name the functional divisions of the cerebellum. Describe the structure, connections, and functions of cerebellum. Mention two sings of cerebellar lesions ★★
  15. Describe the structure, connections and functions of Reticular formation ★★
  16. What is sleep. Describe the stages of sleep. What will be the electrical activities recorded during the different stages of sleep
  17. Give an account of secretion, circulation, absorption and functions of CSF. How is its pressure determined? ★
Short Questions
  1. Role of hypothalamus in regulating the body temperature ★★★
  2. Classification of nerve fibers
  3. Role of myelin sheath in conduction of nerve impulse ★★
  4. Saltatory conduction ★★★
  5. Define synapse, Describe the mode of transmission at a synapse ★★
  6. Golgi tendon reflex ★
  7. Define muscle tone and discuss the phenomenon responsible for it. What conditions lead to alterations of tone?
  8. Monosynaptic reflex
  9. Cushing’s reflex ★★
  10. Tract of Gall and Burdach ★★★
  11. Anterior spino thalamic tract ★
  12. Difference between pyramidal tract and extrapyramidal tract ★★★
  13. Sensations carried by posterior column
  14. Spinal shock
  15. Effects of lateral hemisection of spinal cord ★★
  16. Brown sequard syndrome ★★★
  17. Phantom limb
  18. Endorphins
  19. Referred pain and its theories ★★
  20. Mention features of thalamic syndrome ★★
  21. Role of hypothalamus on hunger regulation
  22. Functions of hypothalamus ★★★
  23. Role of purkinje cells of cerebellum
  24. Clinical features of cerebellar lesions ★★
  25. Functions and tests of cerebellum ★
  26. Climbing, mossy and parallel fibres ★★
  27. Parkinson’s Disease with treatment ★★★
  28. Basal ganglia and its functions ★★★
  29. Describe the Principle output of basal ganglia. Enumerate the disorders encountered due to disease of basal ganglia
  30. Discuss the functions of limbic system ★
  31. Functions of ascending reticular activating system ★★★
  32. Decerebrate rigidity ★★★
  33. Induction of sleep
  34. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep ★★
  35. Compare REM and NREM sleep ★★★
  36. Excitation – Secretion coupling
  37. Control of appetite
  38. Describe the physiology of speech
  39. Aphasia ★★
  40. Blood brain barrier ★★
  41. Functions of CSF and methods to get a sample of CSF ★★
  42. Describe formation, circulation an functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  43. Broca’s Area ★
  44. Acetyl choline
  45. Name two facilitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their sides of action
  46. Inverse stretch reflex
  47. Conditions where plantar response is ‘extensor’
  48. Define Bell-Megendie law? ★★
  49. What is righting reflex
  50. Conditioned reflex ★★
  51. Papez Circuit
  52. What is the deference between the spasticity ad rigidity ? ★★
  53. Babinski’s sign and its clinical significance ★★★
  54. Homunculus ★
  55. Thalamic syndrome
  56. Cog-wheel rigidity
  57. What are the functions of frontal lobe ?
  58. Functions of parietal lobe
  59. Betz cells ★★
  60. Functions of prefrontal lobe ★★
  61. What is stereognosis? Where is its centre?
  62. Delta waves in EEG ★
  63. Clinical significance of Electro Encephalo Gram (EEG)
  64. EEG Changes during sleep ★
  65. Stages of sleep
  66. Antegrade amnesia
  67. Wernicke’s aphasia ★★
  68. Type of memory

SPECIAL SENSES

After finishing all the chapters. Read this.

Long Questions
  1. With the help of diagram, describe the auditory pathway. Add a note on conduction deafness ★★
  2. Trace the visual pathway and the effects of lesion at various points in the pathway ★★★
  3. Describe the optic pathway from the photoreceptors to the visual cortex. Add a note on visual field defects produced by lesions at various levels of the pathway ★★★
  4. Explain the role of vestibular apparatus in posture and equilibrium. Add a note on Meniere’s syndrome ★★
  5. What are otolith organs? Explain their mechanism of action and the physiological function
Short Questions
  1. Aqueous humour ★★
  2. Ciliary body and its importance ★
  3. Functions of the Iris
  4. Explain dark adaption time ★★★
  5. Effects of lesion in optic pathway ★★
  6. Nystagmus
  7. Photoreceptors
  8. Purkinjie Shift ★★
  9. Blind spot ★★
  10. Functions of Rods and Cones ★★★
  11. Neural Organisation of retina ★★
  12. Colour blindness ★★★
  13. Colour vision ★★★
  14. Dark adaptation ★★★
  15. Astigmatism ★★★
  16. Visual aquity ★
  17. Accomodation reflex
  18. Errors of refraction
  19. Functions of vestibular apparatus ★★
  20. Organ of Corti
  21. Functions of middle ear ★★
  22. Rinnes test and its significance ★
  23. Auditory pathway with suitable diagram
  24. Tympanic reflex
  25. Test of hearing
  26. Pathway for the taste sensation ★
  27. Taste Receptors ★★
  28. Trichromatic theory of colour vision ★
  29. Draw the structure of rods and cones
  30. Presbyopia ★★★
  31. Functions of utricle and saccule ★★
  32. Basilar membrane
  33. Components of vestibular apparatus ★
  34. Attenuation Reflex
  35. Rinne’s Test ★
  36. Findings in Weber’s test in conduction deafness of the left side ★★
  37. Primary taste sensations ★
  38. Draw a labelled diagram of pathway for taste
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